Xixia is an important minority regime in Chinese history, and it has a history of nearly 190 years. Its capital was in present Yinchuan city of Ningxia. Due to the destroy of the Mongolian troop, little cultural relics, remains and arts were left, which has brought too many mysteries to this old dynasty, and Xixia china is still a mystery in the porcelain history of China.

  With the excavation of Xixia porcelain places such as Ningxia, Gansu and Inner Mongolian in recent years, the collection of Xixia porcelain become famous at home and abroad, and Xixia porcelain begin to show people the mystery and incomplete history.

  Since the Xixia civilization established by the Tangut people disappeared mysteriously, the study on the Xixia porcelain is a long and hard process. In 1956, two precious black-glazed inscribed vase was found in Ejin Horo Banner of Inner Mongolian Autonomous Region, which were firstly thought coming from the Yuan Dynasty, and later, it was believed that they were related to the Xixia. After the 1970s to 1980s, Xixia porcelains were discovered in places of Ningxia, Qinghai and Gansu, which previously belonged to the territory of the Xixia Regime and a batch of Xixia kiln were also found. Only by then, the archaeologists began to distinguished Xixia porcelain with porcelain of Song and Yuan dynasty.

  As an important constituent part of Xixia culture, Xixia porcelain was influenced Cizhou Kiln and Yaozhou Kiln of Central Plain, but was still combined with the culture and national characteristics of the Tangut People. From the Xixia porcelain discovered around the country, Xixia porcelain has obvious national characteristics, simple ornamentation, and wild decoration methods. The most unique flat flask, four-handle-bottle, high-foot bowl, bed-curtain hook and the glaze decoration arts have all manifested the pure and simple national character of the Tangut national, and meanwhile, enriched the shape and decoration contents of porcelain.

  The large production amount and exquisite appearance of flat flask were also unique in kilns in Xixia. It was the most representative typical apparatus among Xixia porcelain. There are two kinds of flat flask, the larger one is round-foot flat flask with small mouth, short neck, flat and round middle part. Wine, water or milk held in the flask won’t be overflowed.

  There is also a smaller kind of flat flask, which is like the larger one in shape, but it has no round foot, but with two lugs on the sides, so it is easy to carry around. Both the larger and smaller flat flasks are reasonably designed and made, which have shown the intelligence and wisdom of the Tangut people.

  Porcelain bell and bed-curtain hook are special products among Xixia porcelain as well as living necessities of the nomadic people. Since there were few copper or iron mines in Xixia, Xixia people made porcelain bell and hooks to replace the metal bell and hooks according circumstances, which was really a pioneering undertaking. It not only tactfully solved the difficulties of without metal products, but also provide new thoughts for porcelain industry.

  Bull-head Xun (an ancient egg-shaped holed wind instrument) is a kind of Xun, since it shaped like a bull head, it is called bull-head Xun. There were two holes in the front side of the Xun and one hole on the top of the Xun. When playing it, it can produce beautiful sounds. As an instrument, Xun was deeply loved by the people on the grasslands. The discovery of this bull-head Xun not only shows the creative intelligence of Xixia people, but also displays the nomadic people’s pursuit of the beautiful emotional feeling in Northwest China.

  The most typical characteristic of Xixia porcelain was to inscribe decoration design on the porcelain apparatus, and this kind of porcelain was the most beautiful one among Xixia porcelain.

  When the porcelain craftsmen inscribe decorations on the porcelain, there were usually two procedures: firstly, engraving decorative designs, which as not made on the porcelain, but on the glazed apparatus, and decorative designs and outlines were inscribed with graver, which is very difficult; and the second procedure is the extension of the first procedure, which removes or scrapes the excessive glaze around the decorative designs and patterns to show the body.

  The most famous pattern inscribed on the Xixia porcelain was different kinds of peony. According to the introduction of some collectors, there were no peony within the territory of Xixia, so it is incomprehensible to inscribe peony on the porcelain.

  In recent years, with the deepening of research on the Xixia porcelain as well as the pursuit of the mysterious Xixia culture, domestic museums have enhanced their collection on Xixia porcelain, and meanwhile, the collection of Xixia porcelain has also becoming a hot favorite in domestic collection sector.

  On the Xixia ancient porcelain exhibition, 68 collectors from 12 provinces and cities including Beijing, Shanghai, etc. have brought nearly 200 Xixia porcelain to the exhibition, attracting the attention of tourists and collectors from countries of Australia, Sweden, Italy, Egypt, France, etc.

  Wherein, the most rare and complete brown-glazed inscribed peony pattern big pot and brown-glazed inscribed twine peony pattern big pot were national level Xixia porcelain Xixia porcelain relics.

  According to the introduction of Mi Xiangjun, the standing director of Ningxia Collection Association, the influence of Xixia porcelain was increasing in recent years. In one aspect, the scope of private collectors is expanded. In the past, only the collectors from places of Shanxi, Gansu and Ningxia paid attention to the Xixia porcelain, but now, the collectors from Beijing, Shanghai, Guangdong, etc. have also enhanced their collection on Xixia porcelain.

  In another aspect, the state museum also collects a brown-glazed inscribed flat flask excavated from Ningxia Haiyuan County, while there are also Xixia porcelain collected in museums in countries such as Japan, France, Russia, etc. Since few Xixia porcelain is left and excavated, many collectors are pride of owning Xixia porcelain.

  According to Li Jinxing, the researcher of Xixia porcelain, since the Tangut people have the custom of cremation, there are few tombs, so few porcelains was excavated from tombs. At present, the treasure among Xixia porcelain, the number of inscribed patterns Xixia porcelain collected is even smaller. There are only about 100 pieces, which is precious. Since the number is rare, the price of one Xixia porcelain could be sold to over 1 million yuan.

  The history of Xixia porcelain is also the history of Xixia. There is Twenty-four History in China, but there is nothing about Xixia; in the porcelain history of China, Xixia porcelain isn’t listed in it either. The culture without physical evidence is insubstantial, and now people are trying to find these lost treasures so that they can better know the Xixia history scattered on the porcelain.

  From 1980s, over 10 Xixia porcelain kilns were excavated, including porcelain kiln fort town of Lingwu city, Ningxia, Huiminxiang, and Taerwan of Wuwei city, Gansu province, so that the truth of Xixia porcelain is disclosed. Especially a large batch of precious treasure were excavated in Ningxia Lingwu kiln and Gansu Wuwei kiln were excavated, and there are Xixia characters and inscription annals on these porcelains, which have provided research samples to specialists and scholars at home and abroad and filled the gap of Xixia porcelain culture and art in China.

  Xixia is in China, while tangutology is developed abroad. Many countries, especially Russia, Japan and the USA have been put emphasis on the study of Tangut culture and collecting Xixia porcelain, which have obtained plentiful achievements. In recent years, China have also enhanced the collection and study on Xixia porcelain, and the special historic value, cultural value, and archaeological value of Xixia proclaim are gradually recognized, becoming precious measures for studying the history, culture, economy and military of Xixia.

  Since the formative arts and decoration skills of Xixia porcelain are different from the porcelain made in kiln in the south, especially its beautiful inscribed pattern, which are dotted with mysterious Xixia characters. Xixia porcelain are precious national art treasure both from the history value and art value.

  In last century, due to the excavation of foreign expedition, large amount of Xixia literature, literature and porcelain were lost to countries including Russia, UK, etc., and the number of collections in these countries even exceed that in China. In recent years, collectors in China also begin to buy back Xixia porcelain from overseas to enhance the research and protection to Xixia porcelain. This year, Mr. Yan Hui, a Hong Kong merchant have purchased two lost Xixia porcelain from his American friend and donate it to Xixia Museum of Wuwei city, Gansu province